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Postado em 18 de Agosto de 2018 às 09h35

Tubes - Versatile tool for coffee cultivation

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GRUPO DACKO - Equipamentos para Viveiro The coffee cultivation is undoubtedly one of the main activities… Coffee cultivation is undoubtedly one of the main agricultural activities of the country, Brazil being considered the largest...

The coffee cultivation is undoubtedly one of the main activities…

Coffee cultivation is undoubtedly one of the main agricultural activities of the country, Brazil being considered the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world, generating a great contribution to the national agribusiness.

Considered a traditional long-standing activity, coffee cultivation was responsible for the development of several Brazilian regions, passing through the States of SP and PR, and currently concentrates on MG and ES, which stand out as producers of arabica and conilon coffee, respectively.

This migratory behavior occurred due to problems related to several factors, especially climatic and phytosanitary factors. Frost, economic policy, diseases and soil pests, especially nematodes, were responsible for the failure of the activity in regions such as the Western São Paulo and Northern Paraná.

The seedlings
One of the most common practices for the spread of weeds, pests and soil diseases is the use of seedlings containing soil contaminated by seeds, phytopathogens and nematodes.

Many coffee growers who migrated to other regions, such as São Paulo and Paraná, who went to Minas and Rondônia, for example, may have disseminated problems by carrying contaminated seedlings. In this context, the importance of the use of seedlings of provenance and free of problems is crucial.

The State of São Paulo, through decree No. 26, issued by the Plant Protection Coordination (CDA), establishes that all the greenhouses and traders of coffee seedlings must be registered and comply with techniques as appropriate treatment for disinfection and disinfestation of the germinators with each new germination and of the substrate to be used; storage and manipulation of the substrate in a non-contact location and free of invasive plants; substrate with good porosity; irrigation water and substrate free from nematodes, fungi and other pathogens harmful to coffee, and the use of baskets or plastic bags containing soil from any source is prohibited.

Other Brazilian producer states, such as Minas Gerais (Ordinance 863/2007) and, more recently, Rondônia (Ordinance 558/2016), also adopt practices that support measures against the dissemination of nematodes.

Production in tubes
The technique of producing coffee seedlings with the use of tubes was derived from the production of seedlings of forest species, which has used the technology since the 1970s in the United States. It consists of replacing the soil, traditionally used as a substrate, but the largest disseminator of phytosanitary problems, mainly nematodes, by substrates that are mostly industrialized.

The tube is a rigid plastic container of tapered shape of 120 mL, and can be reusable (returnable) after washing and disinfection. It presents some advantages, when compared to the plastic bags (baskets), such as: logistics - ease of handling in the greenhouse; is kept suspended, avoiding contact with the soil and improving sanitary issues; lower substrate consumption; its shape directs the root system through internal vertical friezes; lighter and easier to carry, by using trays / shelves and plastic boxes; speed and practicality in the planting, being of easy distribution and placement in the line, especially if used in mechanized planters.

Details that make the difference
The production of coffee seedlings begins with the harvesting of seeds extracted from mature fruits ("cherry") from production areas or research centers (registered for seed production) of identified and proven plants, guaranteeing the origin of the material and avoiding undesirable crosses, thus obtaining healthy seeds of high physiological quality, guaranteeing good germination and vigorous seedlings.

After germinating in germinators (sandboxes), they are transplanted in tubes and taken to the greenhouse for development.

The Conilon coffee
The technique of production of arabic coffee seedlings in tubes is already well known (used since the 90s by greenhouses and cooperatives) and obligatory since 2007 in the State of São Paulo. The latest technology is the production of conilon coffee seedlings in tubes.

Conilon coffee is currently responsible for composing the main raw material for the soluble coffee industry, in addition to gradually increasing its share of beverages from roasted and ground coffee, espresso coffee blends and so-called "3 in 1", obtained by soluble and roasted and ground mixtures.

More quality
The quest for quality conilon is increasingly the goal of the production chain, especially the roasting industry. For decades, conilon has been considered an "inferior quality drink" compared to arabica coffee, but in the last 10 years its participation has become essential to meet drinking trends.