The coffee cultivation is undoubtedly one of the main activities…
Coffee cultivation is undoubtedly one of the main agricultural activities of the country, Brazil being considered the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world, generating a great contribution to the national agribusiness.
Considered a traditional long-standing activity, coffee cultivation was responsible for the development of several Brazilian regions, passing through the States of SP and PR, and currently concentrates on MG and ES, which stand out as producers of arabica and conilon coffee, respectively.
This migratory behavior occurred due to problems related to several factors, especially climatic and phytosanitary factors. Frost, economic policy, diseases and soil pests, especially nematodes, were responsible for the failure of the activity in regions such as the Western São Paulo and Northern Paraná.
Many coffee growers who migrated to other regions, such as São Paulo and Paraná, who went to Minas and Rondônia, for example, may have disseminated problems by carrying contaminated seedlings. In this context, the importance of the use of seedlings of provenance and free of problems is crucial.
The State of São Paulo, through decree No. 26, issued by the Plant Protection Coordination (CDA), establishes that all the greenhouses and traders of coffee seedlings must be registered and comply with techniques as appropriate treatment for disinfection and disinfestation of the germinators with each new germination and of the substrate to be used; storage and manipulation of the substrate in a non-contact location and free of invasive plants; substrate with good porosity; irrigation water and substrate free from nematodes, fungi and other pathogens harmful to coffee, and the use of baskets or plastic bags containing soil from any source is prohibited.
Other Brazilian producer states, such as Minas Gerais (Ordinance 863/2007) and, more recently, Rondônia (Ordinance 558/2016), also adopt practices that support measures against the dissemination of nematodes.
Production in tubes
The tube is a rigid plastic container of tapered shape of 120 mL, and can be reusable (returnable) after washing and disinfection. It presents some advantages, when compared to the plastic bags (baskets), such as: logistics - ease of handling in the greenhouse; is kept suspended, avoiding contact with the soil and improving sanitary issues; lower substrate consumption; its shape directs the root system through internal vertical friezes; lighter and easier to carry, by using trays / shelves and plastic boxes; speed and practicality in the planting, being of easy distribution and placement in the line, especially if used in mechanized planters.
Details that make the difference
After germinating in germinators (sandboxes), they are transplanted in tubes and taken to the greenhouse for development.
The Conilon coffee
Conilon coffee is currently responsible for composing the main raw material for the soluble coffee industry, in addition to gradually increasing its share of beverages from roasted and ground coffee, espresso coffee blends and so-called "3 in 1", obtained by soluble and roasted and ground mixtures.